April birthstone: How diamonds come to be

No matter what time of the year you were born, there's a special gemstone dedicated to your birth month. It's often unknown how each pairing came about, but the creation of designated birthstones added a little something special to everyone's birthday celebrations.

If you're brainstorming gift ideas for your favorite April baby, consider perusing accessories adorned with diamonds at Fine Jewelers. Whether you're looking at a Tommaso Design Round Genuine White Topaz and Diamond Solitaire Engagement Ring for a surprise birthday proposal or a Sterling Silver Heart Mother/daughter Inscription Pendant for your superstar mom, the options are endless. Before you get to shopping, learn about the process that brings diamonds from deep inside the earth to the Amore LaVita Sterling Silver Diamond-cut Open Link Cable Bracelet around your wrist.

Diamonds to represent April
According to the American Gem Society, one theory for the origin of birthstones is a breastplate worn by Aaron that was embellished with 12 different gemstones – one for each tribe of Israel. In addition to various stories that explain how birthstones were selected, cultures around the world associate the stones with healing or protective powers.

Because diamonds are known as one of the hardest materials on Earth, it's believed to provide wearers with inner strength. The name originated from "adamas," the Greek word for invincible. In ancient times, people thought diamonds were created by lightning bolts or they were God's tears. Diamonds have been said to restore balance and clarity to those who carry or wore them.

The value of diamonds was apparent during Louis IX's reign over France, when he dreamed up a law that reserved all diamonds for the king. Jewelry that contained diamond stones was immediately recognized as a sign of power and wealth.

How diamonds are created
Diamonds formed deep inside the Earth – about 100 miles beneath the surface – billions of years ago. They're comprised of carbon atoms, which naturally existed in the mantle layer of the planet. The combination of intense heat, near 800 degrees, and extreme pressure from the crust layer created extremely strong bonds between the molecules. Within hours, the structures were pushed closer the surface by a molten rock eruption, The Smithsonian explained. They had to move quickly to the outer layer, from extremely hot to significantly cooler temperatures, in order to maintain the strong molecular bonds that give diamonds their solidity.

As a result, tubes of rock that contained diamonds and extended more than a mile underground formed, according to The Natural History Museum. They're called Kimberlites, named for Kimberley, Africa, where many diamonds have been mined. At least half of the world's diamonds come from central and south African countries. 

How diamonds become jewelry
Business Insider broke down the cutting and finishing processes that take diamonds from dirt-covered stones to gleaming jewels. Once they've been separated from the coating of Earth, rough diamonds are measured and sorted by size, color and clarity. The three categories from low- to high-quality are boart, industrial quality and gem quality.

Next, the diamonds are cut and smoothed with saws depending on their color and assigned category. Workers check clarity and facets consistently throughout the process, the source reported. 

The Natural History Museum explained how small amounts of other minerals were pushed to the Earth's surface with chunks of diamond. According to The Smithsonian, this is how fancy colored diamonds were created. Atoms other than carbon mixed into the formation, causing a change in color. The source discovered that blue diamonds come from trace amounts of boron, while nitrogen molecules contribute to the development of yellow-brown diamonds.